It is precisely when the solution is sought in the direction of regional self-sufficiency, and thus in short chains which are disconnected from global dependencies (inputs/outputs), that many macro-problems evaporate. This brings people back to the scale on which they can take control of their own lives.
See the integral urban-district development work of Henk Oosterling and others in Rotterdam (Eco3 Doen denken, Japsam books, Prinsenbeek, 2013).